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Integration of physical and cognitive human models to simulate driving with a secondary in-vehicle task
Human behavior models give insight into people-s choices and actions and are tools for predicting performance and improving interface design. Most models focus on a task-s cognitive aspects or its physical requirements. This research addresses the divide between cognitive and physical models by...
Focusing on vulnerable populations in crashes recent advances in finite element human models for injury biomechanics research.
Children, small female, elderly, and obese occupants are at greater risk of death and serious injuries in motor-vehicle crashes than the mid-size, young, male occupants. However, current injury assessment tools, including crash test dummies and finite element (FE) human models, generally do not...
Crash protection for child passengers rationale for best practice / by Kathleen D. Klinich, Miriam A. Manary, and Kathleen B. Weber.
Child restraint systems provide specialized protection for pediatric motor vehicle occupants whose body structures are still immature and growing. There are many occupant protection systems available and the different types of restraints are appropriately matched to children based primarily on...
Toward designing pedestrian-friendly vehicles
Due to a rise in global urbanization and motorization, pedestrian injuries continue to be a major public-health problem worldwide. To design pedestrian-friendly vehicles, knowledge of common pedestrian injuries, technologies available for reducing these injuries, and benefit estimations for these...
Model development and robust optimal design of occupant restraint system
In this study, an occupant restraint system model of a production SUV developed in MADYMO software was used for crash simulations. Component tests were conducted to obtain the parameters of seatbelt and seat. Parameters of airbag were obtained by tank tests and the airbag model was validated by...
Development and validation of a modified Hybrid-III six-year-old dummy model for simulating submarining in motor-vehicle crashes
In motor-vehicle crashes, young school-aged children restrained by vehicle seat belt systems often suffer from abdominal injuries due to submarining. However, the current anthropomorphic test device, so-called -crash dummy-, is not adequate for proper simulation of submarining. In this study, a...
Characterization of ovine utero-placental interface tensile failure
Data on the strength of the utero-placental interface (UPI) would help improve understanding of the mechanisms of placental abruption (premature separation of the placenta from the uterus) during motor-vehicle crashes involving pregnant occupants. An ovine model was selected for study because like...
Influence of object size and hand posture on upper limb joint loads during one-handed lifting exertion
This work aims to collect new information and develop models for design of objects that are held or manipulated with the hand. Examples include, handles that are used to lift and hold containers or support the body, tools, parts and materials. Towards this end, this study examines the effect of...
Impact direction effect on serious-to-fatal injuries among drivers in near-side collisions according to impact location focus on thoracic injuries.
Occupant injury in real world vehicle accidents can be significantly affected by a set of crash characteristics, of which impact direction and impact location (or damage location) in general scale interval (e.g., frontal impact is frequently defined as general damage to vehicle frontal end with...
Abdominal injury in motor-vehicle crashes
A review of the biomechanical and epidemiological literature on abdomen injury in motor-vehicle crashes was performed. Results of this review demonstrate that (1) there are limited data on abdomen injuries in real-world crashes of newer model airbag-equipped vehicles, (2) there are insufficient...

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