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Development and testing of a more realistic pelvis for the hybrid III 6-year-old ATD
Objective: Design and test a new pelvis for the Hybrid III 6-year-old (6YO) anthropometric test device (ATD) with a more humanlike bone structure, flesh contour, and flesh stiffness intended to provide more realistic interaction with belt restraints. Methods: Target geometry for the new pelvis bone...
Evaluation of Hybrid-III 6YO ATD chest jacket shape and position
In previous work, belt fit on the Hybrid-III six-year-old (6YO) anthropomorphic test device (ATD) was found to depend on the positioning of the chest jacket of the ATD. Moreover, differences were noted between jackets manufactured by Denton-ATD and First Technology Safety Systems (FTSS). The...
Optimizing protection for rear seat occupants assessing booster performance with realistic belt geometry using the Hybrid III 6YO ATD.
A series of sled tests was conducted to examine the performance of booster seats under belt geometries representing the range found in the rear seats of current vehicles. Twelve tests were performed with the standard 6YO Hybrid III ATD and 29 tests were performed with a modified version of the 6YO...
Effect of realistic vehicle seats, cushion length, and lap belt geometry on child ATD kinematics
This series of sled tests examined the effect of using real vehicle seats on child ATD performance. Cushion length was varied from production length of 450 mm to a shorter length of 350 mm. Lap belt geometry was set to rear, mid, and forward anchorage locations that span the range of allowable lap...
Development and validation of a modified Hybrid-III six-year-old dummy model for simulating submarining in motor-vehicle crashes
In motor-vehicle crashes, young school-aged children restrained by vehicle seat belt systems often suffer from abdominal injuries due to submarining. However, the current anthropomorphic test device, so-called -crash dummy-, is not adequate for proper simulation of submarining. In this study, a...
Interactions of out-of-position small-female surrogates with a depowered driver airbag.
The objectives of this study were to examine the response, repeatability, and injury predictive ability of the Hybrid III small-female dummy to static out-of-position (OOP) deployments using a depowered driver-side airbag. Five dummy tests were conducted in two OOP configurations by two different...
Anthropometric specification of child crash dummy pelves through statistical analysis of skeletal geometry
The pelves of the child dummies of the widely used Hybrid-III family are based on minimal data from children. Because an accurate pelvis design is critical for realistic assessments of belt restraint interactions, an analysis of medical imaging data was conducted to develop guidance for improved...
Development of new criteria for assessing the risk of knee-thigh-hip injury in frontal impacts using hybrid III femur force measurements
Injury patterns in real-world frontal crashes and the forces predicted in computational simulations of knee impacts suggest that the risk of hip injury is higher than the risk of knee/distal femur injury in most frontal crashes that are similar in severity to those used in FMVSS 208 and NCAP....
A simulation study of spine biofidelity in the Hybrid-III 6-year-old ATD
Objective: Because of the lack of pediatric biomechanical data, Hybrid-III (HIII) child anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) are essentially scaled from the mid-size male ATD based on the geometric considerations. These ATDs inherit a rigid thoracic spine from the adult HIII ATDs, which has been...
Development and validation of a parametric child anthropomorphic test device model representing 6-12-year-old children.
Children from 6 to 12 year-old (YO) restrained in motor vehicles by seatbelts designed for adults often experience poor belt fit that results in adverse outcomes in crashes. Computer modelling provides a means to investigate the effects of body size on the injury risks in crashes beyond the few...