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Headlamps and pedestrian injuries
This study examined existing U.S. data on the contribution of headlamp hardware to pedestrian injuries in crashes. Three sets of pedestrian crash data were used. The first set included all police-reported pedestrian crashes from five states. The analyzed variable was the initial point of impact on...
Vehicle kinematics in turns and the role of cornering lamps in driver vision
SAE Recommended Practice J852 and ECE Regulations 119 and 48 for cornering lamps were compared. Photometric points described in each specification were then compared to naturalistic lowspeed turn trajectories produced by 87 drivers. Future locations of a vehicle engaged in a turn were calculated...
Differences in geometry of pedestrian crashes in daylight and darkness
Introduction: Previous studies have shown that increased risk in darkness is particularly great for pedestrian crashes, suggesting that attempts to improve headlighting should focus on factors that likely influence those crashes. The current analysis was designed to provide information about how...
Heavy trucks, conspicuity treatment, and the decline of collision risk in darkness
Introduction: The influence of amendments to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 108, requiring conspicuity treatments on heavy tractors and trailers, was determined in analyses of the odds of fatal collisions in darkness. Method: Comparisons were made between crashes in which conspicuity...
The influence of rear turn-signal characteristics on crash risk
Introduction: The relationship between the relative risk of a rear-end collision during a turn, merge, or lane change maneuver and the characteristics of the rear turn-signal configuration was examined using crash data from seven states in the United States. Method: Rear turn-signal characteristics...
Estimating the legibility of a single letter E viewed at different display angles
Text is often viewed not perpendicularly to its display. With nine assumptions, this study developed a new equation for estimating the legibility of a single letter E viewed at different display angles. This equation examines viewing distance, text height, strokewidth, Snellen acuity, background...
Intersection kinematics a pilot study of driver turning behavior with application to pedestrian obscuration by A-pillars
Vehicle turn trajectories from a naturalistic driving database were modeled using Bezier curves. A-pillar geometry from 56 vehicles was analyzed to develop representative and extreme cases of A-pillar obscuration. A new methodology was developed for quantifying plan-view obscuration in...
Visual fatigue and the driver
The last fifty years of research on visual fatigue are surveyed, with special emphasis on results that may be important in the context of driving. Over that time, ideas about visual fatigue have varied, ranging from a broad application of the label eyestrain, to virtually any visual complaint (...
Mirror size and lane-change crashes.
This study examined the relationship between the size of the driver-side outside mirror and the frequency of lane-change crashes. To control for other vehicle and driver differences that might be associated with mirror size, the frequency of going-straight-ahead crashes was used for comparison. The...

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