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A stochastic visco-hyperelasitc model of human placenta tissue for finite element crash simulations
Placental abruption is the most common cause of fetal deaths in motor-vehicle crashes, but studies on the mechanical properties of human placenta are rare. This study presents a new method of developing a stochastic viscohyperelastic material model of human placenta tissue using a combination of...
Effect of frozen storage on dynamic tensile properties of human placenta
Dynamic mechanical properties of placenta tissue are needed to develop computational models of pregnant occupants for use in designing restraint systems that protect the fetus and mother. Tests were performed on 21 samples obtained from five human placentas at a rate of 1200 %/s using a set of...
Interactions of out-of-position small-female surrogates with a depowered driver airbag.
The objectives of this study were to examine the response, repeatability, and injury predictive ability of the Hybrid III small-female dummy to static out-of-position (OOP) deployments using a depowered driver-side airbag. Five dummy tests were conducted in two OOP configurations by two different...
Development, validation, and application of a parametric finite element femur model
Older, obese, and female occupants have higher risk of serious lower-extremity injuries in frontal crashes. Optimizing vehicle restraints to better protect these vulnerable populations requires finite element (FE) models of the human body that consider the variations in skeletal geometry, body size...
A statistical human rib cage geometry model accounting for variations by age, sex, stature and body mass index 
In this study, we developed a statistical rib cage geometry model accounting for variations by age, sex, stature and body mass index (BMI). Thorax CT scans were obtained from 89 subjects approximately evenly distributed among 8 age groups and both sexes. Threshold-based CT image segmentation was...
Does Unbelted Safety Requirement Affect Protection For Belted Occupants?
Abstract OBJECTIVE: Federal regulations in the United States require vehicles to meet occupant performance requirements with unbelted test dummies. Removing the test requirements with unbelted occupants might encourage the deployment of seatbelt interlocks and allow restraint optimization to...