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Headlamps and pedestrian injuries
This study examined existing U.S. data on the contribution of headlamp hardware to pedestrian injuries in crashes. Three sets of pedestrian crash data were used. The first set included all police-reported pedestrian crashes from five states. The analyzed variable was the initial point of impact on...
Benefits of daytime running lights
This study evaluated the effects of daytime running lights (DRLs) on two-vehicle, head-on crashes of passenger vehicles during daylight, dawn, and dusk. Two control dimensions were used: type of crash (the control being single-vehicle crashes) and light condition (the control being darkness). The...
Trends in fatal U.S. crashes in darkness : 1990 to 2006.
Fatal crash trends in the United States between 1990 and 2006 were examined for changes in the ratio of crashes in darkness to crashes in daylight to determine whether recent improvements in vehicle forward headlighting might have influenced the dark/light ratio. A general decline in the ratio was...
Visual fatigue and the driver
The last fifty years of research on visual fatigue are surveyed, with special emphasis on results that may be important in the context of driving. Over that time, ideas about visual fatigue have varied, ranging from a broad application of the label eyestrain, to virtually any visual complaint (...
Driver perception of potential pedestrian conflict
The objective of this study was to provide information about drivers- needs and preferences for the characteristics of pedestrian detection systems that would be useful to the designers of cars and of pedestrian detection systems. In this study, we varied parameters that determine a pedestrian-s...
Mirror size and lane-change crashes.
This study examined the relationship between the size of the driver-side outside mirror and the frequency of lane-change crashes. To control for other vehicle and driver differences that might be associated with mirror size, the frequency of going-straight-ahead crashes was used for comparison. The...
Economic indicators as predictors of the number and fuel economy of purchased new vehicles
This study examined the relationship between two economic indicators-the unemployment rate and the price of gasoline-and purchase decisions of new vehicle buyers. Two regression analyses were performed, one focusing on the number of vehicles purchased and the other one on their fuel economy. Both...
Photometric indicators of headlamp performance
The visibility of an object is largely determined by the relative contrast between the object and its background. Thus, it might be assumed that without consideration of environmental conditions surrounding a target illuminated by a headlamp, target visibility may not be accurately assessed. That...
Relationships between lighting and animal-vehicle collisions
In 1990, there were 106 traffic fatalities in the United States in crashes for which a collision with an animal was the first harmful event; by 2007 this level had risen to 223-a 110% increase. Analyses of annual trends suggest that this increase cannot be fully explained by increases in vehicle...
Relationships among driver age, vehicle cost, and fatal nighttime crashes
The ratio of crashes in darkness to those occurring in daylight has been used to assess the relative sensitivity of certain risk factors to ambient light level. When applied in a way that maintains control over exposure level, use of dark/light ratios can be helpful in identifying crash factors...