Review of hazard anticipation training programs for young drivers
Authors: Catherine C. McDonald, Arthur H. Goodwin, Anuj K. Pradhan, Matthew R.E. Romoser, Allan F. Williams
Purpose: Poor hazard anticipation skills are a risk factor associated with high motor vehicle crash rates of young drivers. A number of programs have been developed to improve these skills. The purpose of this review was to assess the empirical literature on hazard anticipation training for young drivers. -- Methods: Studies were included if they (1) included an assessment of hazard anticipation training outcomes; (2) were published between January 1, 1980 and December 31, 2013 in an English language peer-reviewed journal or conference proceeding; and (3) included at least one group that uniquely comprised a cohort of participants aged < 21 years. Nineteen studies met inclusion criteria. -- Results: Studies used a variety of training methods including interactive computer programs, videos, simulation, commentary driving, or a combination of approaches. Training effects were predominantly measured through computer-based testing and driving simulation with eye tracking. Four studies included an on-road evaluation. Most studies evaluated short-term out- comes (immediate or few days). In all studies, young drivers showed improvement in selected hazard anticipation outcomes but none investigated crash effects. -- Conclusions: Although there is promise in existing programs, future research should include long- term follow-up, evaluate crash outcomes, and assess the optimal timing of hazard anticipation training taking into account the age and experience level of young drivers.