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Child Occupant Protection Device Use and Misuse

All states have some form of legislation requiring young children to be in a child safety seat while traveling in a motor vehicle. These laws have had varying success in getting parents to properly restrain their young children. Even when children are seated in the proper child safety seat, the seat is often improperly installed in the vehicle. Researchers at UMTRI have developed several studies to determine the overall use rates of child safety seats, as well as common misuse errors.

Recent Publications

Evaluation of ISO CRS envelopes relative to U.S. vehicles and child restraint systems
Jingwen Hu, Miriam A. Manary, Kathleen D. Klinich, Matthew P. Reed 

journal article IN: Traffic injury prevention Volume 16, Issue 8, 2015, pp. 781-785

 The objectives of this study are to use computer simulation to evaluate the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 13216...

Assessing the restraint performance of vehicle seats and belt geometry optimized for older children
Kathleen D. Klinich, Matthew P. Reed, Jingwen Hu, Jonathan D. Rupp

report UMTRI-2012-4

In a previous study, a computational model of child occupants 6 to 10 years old (YO) was validated using data from a sled test series...

Effects of child restraint system features on installation errors.
Kathleen D. Klinich, Miriam A. Manary, Carol A. C. Flannagan, Sheila M. Ebert-Hamilton, L. Malik, Paul A. Green, Matthew P. Reed

journal article IN: Applied Ergonomics

This study examined how child restraint system (CRS) features contribute to CRS installation errors. Sixteen convertible CRS, selected...

Factors affecting tether use and misuse
Kathleen D. Klinich, Nichole R. Orton, Carol A. C. Flannagan, Miriam A. Manary, Laura A. Malik, Prabha Narayanaswamy

report UMTRI-2014-7

This project investigated factors relating to tether use and misuse. Volunteer testing was performed with 37 subjects on 16 different...

Child passenger restraints in relation to other second-row passengers : an analysis of the 2007-2009 National Survey of the Use of Booster Seats.
Michelle L. Macy, Gary L. Freed, Matthew P. Reed.

journal article IN: Traffic injury prevention. Vol. 14, no. 2 (2013), p. 209-214.

Objective: Child restraint systems (CRS) are increasingly being designed to accommodate larger children and to mitigate side impact...